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this paper addresses a fundamental and relatively unexplored problem in metal science: the nature of the interface between a surface and a metallic glass. the specific goal of this study is to determine the basic mechanism that governs the formation of this critical surface, and hence the properties of the interfaces between metallic glasses and their surfaces. we first attempt to theoretically understand the conditions under which these interfaces form and then seek to identify their physical and chemical nature. the formation of such interfaces was studied in supercooled cuzr-alloys. experimental results are presented that show how they form by a diffusion-controlled process, and how they are modified by short-term mechanical processing, such as scratching. finally, a model is presented that relates the formation of the interfaces to the primary structural and chemical events that take place during the relaxation of the bulk system. in the end, we present a new physical model that predicts the nature of these critical surfaces, and hence their influence on the mechanical and chemical properties of the metallic glasses. we believe that this study may provide a general framework for the design of surfaces that form on other metallic alloys, as well as the development of strategies that promote the formation of these surfaces in order to enhance the properties of the bulk material.
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with the increasing use of engineered cementitious composites in new buildings, there is a need to investigate the performance of these materials to predict their long-term durability. this study investigates the effect of aggregate size and mix design on the performance of cement-based materials with respect to their durability. the properties of cement-based materials were determined at 28 and 90 days for two aggregate mixes of construction granular aggregates (cga): large (lga) and small (sga) to investigate their durability. the properties of cement-based materials that were tested included compressive strength, flexural strength and compressive toughness. at 28 days, lga cement-based materials exhibited an average compressive strength of 19.0 mpa, a flexural strength of 19.5 mpa and a compressive toughness of 1.7 mpam1/2, while the sga cement-based materials had an average compressive strength of 16.8 mpa, a flexural strength of 17.3 mpa and a compressive toughness of 1.7 mpam1/2. at 90 days, lga cement-based materials had a compressive strength of 30.6 mpa, a flexural strength of 34.1 mpa and a compressive toughness of 1.8 mpam1/2, while the sga cement-based materials had an average compressive strength of 29.3 mpa, a flexural strength of 31.4 mpa and a compressive toughness of 1.9 mpam1/2. thus, the results indicated that the lga cement-based materials had a slightly better performance than sga cement-based materials at 28 and 90 days. however, the lga cement-based materials were also slightly weaker than the sga cement-based materials at 28 and 90 days. the lga cement-based materials also exhibited a larger variation in their performance than the sga cement-based materials. this study suggests that the lga cement-based materials should be considered for use in new buildings as they exhibited a slightly better performance than the sga cement-based materials at 28 and 90 days. however, it is recommended that the lga cement-based materials be used with some consideration of the performance of the sga cement-based materials and the quality of the construction material. copyright 2011 sports medicine australia. published by elsevier ltd. all rights reserved.